In the first part of my 2 part series looking at After Action Reviews, I explained what an After Action Review is, and outlined the different activities that take place during it. In part 2, I want to follow up with an overview of what needs to be done to ensure that an After Action Review is successful.
Let’s get straight to it, with my 8 tips on how to ensure that the process is successful
Have a good independent facilitator
The facilitator role is key, as they will dictate the direction and pace of the After Action Review. If the AAR is to be a success it is vital that they remain impartial. For this reason it is good practice to have a facilitator who was not involved in the project. Where I work, we have a pool of trained facilitators who make themselves available for a certain number of After Action Reviews each year.
Everyone involved in the project needs to attend
There is no point in doing an After Action Review if everyone in the project can’t be there. If anyone is missing you will almost certainly miss out on some aspect of what happened during the project. As a result you will be unable to identify all of the potential learning.
Ensure there is no blame
It must be clear going into the After Action Review that the purpose is to focus on learning, and not on finding a scapegoat. The climate, should be open and free from free, in order for there to be a successful outcome. The facilitator should make this clear at the start of the review.
What happens in the After Action Review, stays in the After Action Review
The only content that should be discussed outside of the review, is content that the participants agree to share. Normally this takes the form of Action Reports, which are created at the end of the review. This is important as participants will then feel free to be open when discussing the project. Again the facilitator should make this clear at the start of the review.
Meet as soon as possible after the project conclusion
It is key that the After Action Review takes place as quickly as possible after the project. Finding out how people felt about a project i.e. exploring their emotions is an important aspect of learning what to do the next time. After time passes most people forget how they felt, especially if they go on to work on other projects. The danger of leaving too long a period, is that the focus will only be on technical aspects of the project.
Create SMART Actions to be taken out of the Review
SMART actions (Specific, Measurable, Appropriate, Realistic, Timely) are essential if what is learned from the After Action Review is to be applied successfully in the future. If actions are too fuzzy, and not assigned an owner then what was learned during the review, may not make a difference next time.
To ensure that mistakes during a project are not repeated by others in future projects, it is important that what is learned during the After Action Review, is embedded into company training programs.
It is crucial that senior members of the team are fully supportive of the After Action Review. Any indication that management do not support the process can quickly spread to more junior members of the team, and as a result the review is not taken seriously.
As you can see there are a lot of factors that go into making this process successful. Based on my experience I would highly recommend the tool to anyone who is committed to learning not just at an individual level, but also at the organisational level.
Let me know what you think via the comments. Have you participated in an After Action Review in the past? If so, what factors contributed to its success? For those of you who haven’t used this process, I’d be interested in hearing your thoughts.